Accurate GSM Indoor Localization
7th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), Tokyo, Japan, September 2005
Accurate indoor localization has long been an objective of the ubiquitous computing research community, and numerous indoor localization solutions based on 802.11, Bluetooth, ultrasound and infrared technologies have been proposed. This paper presents the first accurate GSM indoor localization system that achieves median accuracy of 5 meters in large multifloor buildings. The key idea that makes accurate GSM-based indoor localization possible is the use of wide signal-strength fingerprints. In addition to the 6-strongest cells traditionally used in the GSM standard, the wide fingerprint includes readings from additional cells that are strong enough to be detected, but too weak to be used for eficient communication. Experiments conducted on three multifloor buildings show that our system achieves accuracy comparable to an 802.11-based implementation, and can accurately differentiate between floors in both wooden and steel-reinforced concrete structures.